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Appreciative Inquiry

Generating a positive image, framing the conversation and action around hopes and wishes does not ignore or whitewash the challenges. In fact, the problems and solutions are integrated together in the process of moving toward the future.


Source: Watkins, Mohr, and Kelly. (2011). Appreciative Inquiry: Change at the Speed of Imagination. Sna Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Bridges' Transition Model

differentiates between change and transition. Change is situational; transition is psychological. Bridges proposed that transition begins with an ending. To manage transitions, people have to navigate three phases:

1) Ending – celebrating and letting go of old ways and identity

2) Neutral zone – experiencing the movement from the old toward the new reality

3) New beginnings – “discovering” new energy and a new sense of purpose

Change will succeed or fail depending on whether people do things differently and manage their personal transitions. A large change effort will trigger thousands of smaller changes, all of which require people to adjust their behavior.

Source: Bridges, W. (1991). Managing transitions: Making the most of change. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

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Drexler/Sibbet Model

 The first four stages illustrate the creation of the team, building to commitment that must be in place to get results. The next three describe increasing levels of sustained performance. Each stage is represented by straightforward questions and includes behaviors to watch for which indicate the stage is resolved or unresolved. Diagnostic in nature so a team can identify where to focus. The Dynamic framework represents the realistic nature of external factors, change, and business constraints. As core performance elements, teams can focus on each stage in any order. High performance is not an end state – bursts of high performance are viewed as the outcome of diligently addressing other stages. The model has a helpful graphic to increase understanding.

Drexler/Sibbet Team Performance Model

GRPI presents a structured approach to team dynamics. The GRPI model has four elements: goals, roles, process, and interpersonal relationships. Goals give the team direction. Roles define who is responsible for what. Process allows for communication, constructive ways of dealing with conflict, and group decision making. Interpersonal relationships involve caring about the other team members as people, keeping commitments, and developing mutual trust.

Source: Quixote Consulting (2011). GRP Model: An Introduction to the GRPI Tool. Retrieved from

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